Poverty in India Documentary:-
India as a vast and diversified country who was, once under British Rule which was totally destroyed by them Economically, had developed a lot in the last 70 years as compared to other countries who got freedom in the late 1950s.
But still, here one problem that always arises is Poverty in India 2020. So here I will explain the Poverty in India Documentary.
Definition:- When the human being cannot fulfill his basic needs such as Food, Shelter, Clothes, Education, and Health is known as Poverty.
Types of Poverty:-
There are two types of Poverty, Relative and Absolute.
Relative Poverty:- When there is a comparison between 2 person or 2 families on the basis of salary or basic needs is known as Relative Poverty.
Absolute Poverty:- The person who was never above the Poverty Line is included in this category. There is daily earning on daily needs. Eg. BPL (Yellow Ration Card ). They don’t have savings with them.
Types of Poor:-
1) Chronic Poor:- The person who was poor from birth to death.
2) Transient Poor:- Rise and Fall of Income and fluctuating below and Above Poverty Line.
3) Non-Poor:- Always rich from birth to Death.
Causes of Poverty:-
1) Increased Population is a major problem in South Asia.
3) Poor Health
4) Lack of Education and Skill
5) Unequal distribution of wealth
According to World Bank:-
1) Extreme Poverty:– Where income is less than 1.90 dollars per day.
2) Moderate Poverty:- Where income is between 2 dollars to 5 dollars.
3) Better Poverty:- Where income is above 5 dollars.
How to measure poverty in India?
It can be measured through two methods, one is HCR( Head Count Ratio) and 2nd one is PGI (Poverty Gap Index)
1) HCR (Head Count Ratio):-
were a stand for No of poor and N stands for Total Population.
2) PGI ( Poverty Gap Index ):-
It is the Ratio of the poverty gap to the poverty line. In simple, we can say that it measures the intensity of Poverty. If 100 rs is a person’s need and he only earns 80 rs then 20 rs is the Poverty Gap.
NITI aayog estimates Poverty using NSSO data and every 5 years it is conducted. MSME (Monthly per capita consumption expenditure) is used to determine the poverty line. The Ministry of Rural development is used to determine the BPL census.
Methods used by NITI aayog to estimate poverty:-
1) Uniform Recall Period (UPR):- 30 days takes to calculate household expenditure.
2) Mixed Recall Period:- It is calculated by NSSO. 5 Non-Food item refers to 1 year. Education, Clothing, Footwear, durable goods, Inst medical exp.
3) MMRP (Modified Mixed Reference Period):- Recommended by the ‘Rangarajan Committee’ for 1st time in India.
Reference Period is 365 days which includes Education, Clothing, Footwear, Instant medical facility.
2nd is 7 days which includes Fruits, Vegetables, Spices, beverages, edible oil, egg, fish, meat, and tobacco.
3rd is of 30 days which includes Fuel, light, taxes, rent, and commodities.
Committees form for majoring Poverty in India:-
1) YK Alag Committee:-
This was formed in the year 1979 based on the nutritional requirements of rural and urban life. For calculation Urban was given 2100 calories while rural has no of 2400.
The reason why rural got more than urban was rural had more workforce of agriculture work were only hard work is done which consumes more calories.
2) Lakdawala Committee:-
This was formed in the year 1993 for poverty in India which was based on household per capita consumption expenditure.
CPI (Agriculture Labour) was used to construct the rural Poverty Line were as CPI (Industrial Worker) was used to construct the urban Poverty Line.
It gave daily expenditure for the rural areas it was 49.1 rs while the urban area had 56.7 rs. They gave a figured of 27.5
% of Poverty in India.
3) Suresh Tendulkar Committee (2005):-
He changed the pattern of poor surveys and used border patterns. Non-food -items and new few items were included also Mixed Recall Period parameters were taken into consideration.
They went more broadly and included Health, nutrition, education, transport, and electricity. At last, he gave a figure of 37.2 % Poverty in India which literally shocked Everyone.
4) Rangrajan Committee (2013):-
They used the Modified Mixed Reference Period and computed average requirements of proteins, fats, and calories. It was then succeeded by APTF:- Arvind Panagriya Task Force.
MPI:- Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index.
It identifies overlapping deprivations at the household level across the same three dimensions as HDI ( Health, Education, and Living Standard) and shows the proportion of poor, people, and average no. Of deprivations of each poor experience at the same time.
Things are taken into consideration while calculating:-
3 Dimensions:- Health, Education, and Standard of Living.
Health:- Nutrition, Child Mortality
Education:- Years of Schooling, School Attendance
Std of Living:- Cooking Fuel, Imp Sanitation, Electricity, Flooring, Assets, Safe Drinking Water.
Developed in 1905. It shows the distribution of Wealth and Income in Society with a 45-degree Graph.
This is Video material provide to understand Poverty in the more simple form