Soil in India.
Soil in India was classified by Voloekar in the year 1893 and George in the year 1898.
The classification was done on structure, texture, color, and P.H. They classified it into 6 types.
The following are the types of Soil in India.
1) Black Soil
2) Red Soil
3) Laterite Soil
4) Mountain Soil
5) Desert Soil
6) Alluvial Soil
Again in the year 1956 land survey was done and was classified in the same manner.
Let’s go thoroughly through the Soil in India one by one.
1) Black Soil in India.
It covers a 15 % area of India. It is rich in lime, potash, Ferro magnesium. It lacks in phosphorus and Nitrogen. In this region mainly basalt rock is formed.
It is clayey and has a water holding capacity. Crops grown are mainly Cotton and Sugarcane.
2) Red Soil in India.
It covers 25 % of the area. PH is between 6.5 % to 8 % i.e it is acid and base.
It lacks nitrogen and phosphorus. It is red in color due to the more content of iron in it.
It has a problem of erosion which occurs many times. It is good for nutrient balance, the main crop grown here is Rice which is grown in the states of Chattisgarh, Odisha, and Jharkhand.
3) Alluvial Soil in India.
It is grown on 42 % of the total land of India. Soils in India are explained and Alluvial Soil doesn’t come is impossible as it covers more area of 42 % at North Side.
It is one of the most fertile soils in India. Soil is formed by the deposition of rivers and forming Solid.
Lack of phosphorus and Nitrogen. It is good for agriculture, mainly found in North India. Also, it is good in micro- nutrients& Nutrition Balance.
Fertility & Rainfall decrease from East to West. They are mainly two types 1) Khadar 2) Bhangar in which Khadar has more fertility than Bhangar.
Maincrop grown is Wheat. The main states where it is grown are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarakhand.
The above given are the main Soil in India as it covers more areas and crops grown there are much important in daily life.
Now we will look into soils in India that have the least area covered and not much effective compared to the above three.
4) Laterite Soil in India.
It covers 4.5 % of the area. It is found where there is more rainfall. This soil is very infertile and plantation is done on this type of Soil.
The main crops grown are Tea and Coffee. Other crops such as Coconut, Tapioca, Cashew Nuts are too grown.
It is very less clayey and rich in Bauxite. Also, it is found in Coastal Part. Laterite Soil is used to make Bricks.
5) Desert Soil in India.
It covers 5 % of the total Indian area. The area which it covers has very little rainfall and mainly found in the states of Rajasthan.
It has infertile soil and it is made fertile by adding manure + water. It is good in micronutrients. The main crops are grown Cactus, Date.
6) Mountain Soil in India.
It occupies 8 % of the total Indian Area. It has more humus. The plantation is not done properly.
It is found mainly in hilly areas. The states which it covers are Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh.
Basic questions and answers:-
Alluvial Soils:- Up, Bihar, Uttarakhand