Important Case Study on [Types of Forest in India]


It has become part of humans life. So today we will discuss the main topic of Geography i.e β€œTypes of forest in Indiaβ€œ.

India has a total geographical area of about 32 lakh sq km in which forests in India cover about 7,12,249 sq km (2019),  which is increased compared to the 2017 Figure where it was just 7,08,273. 

The growth is about 0.13 % this is a good signal for the govt and Primary sector.

According to Forest Policy, Act (1952) appro 33 % area should be under forest, were in India there is only 21.67 % area under it. Aloe vera is also found in large quantities in India, learn about aloe vera benefits here.

This topic is most important in Indian Geography. It is highlighted in UPSC, IAS, IPS exams. 

What is Forest? ✌✌✌

Forest is the combination of trees, shrubs, microorganisms, and fungi. They provide us with the oxygen we get. More than 30 % area is of forests. Also, about 4 billion hectares is forest cover.  

Who is Forest Minister of India? πŸ‘πŸ‘πŸ‘


Prakash Javadekar is the Forest Minister of India in 2021


Forest Area in India can be classified into 4 types:-


1) Scrub:- This has less tree growth and the tree canopy is less than 10 %.
The geographical area covered by scrub is about 46000 sq km which is 1.40 % of the total area.

2) Open Forest:- Medium tree growth and tree canopy density is between 10 – 40 %. The geographical area covered by it is 3,01,800 sq km and percentage-wise it is 9.20 %.


3) Moderately Dense:- Good tree growth is there with a high-density canopy between 40 – 70 %. It is mostly found in Ghats. The total area geographical-wise covered is 3,08,318 sq km and percentage-wise it is 9.40 %.


4) Very Dense:- High growth rate mostly evergreen forest with canopy density of 70 % and more. It is mostly found in hilly areas. The total area geographical-wise covered is 98,158 sq km and percentage-wise it is 3 %.

Types of forest in India
Area-types-forests



If we overview through area wise Madhya Pradesh ranks at the top while Arunachal Pradesh and Chattisgarh at 2nd and 3rd respectively.

Percentage-wise Mizoram ranks at the top and 2nd is Arunachal Pradesh.




Let’s now see the largest forest in India and state-wise Indian Forest Information. (Statewise forest cover in India)


1) Andra Pradesh:-

Total area :- 162,968
Forest Area :- 28,147 ( 17.27 %)

2) Arunchal Pradesh :-

Total area :- 83,743
Forest Area :- 66,964 ( 80 %)

3) Assam :- 

Total area :- 78,438
Forest Area :- 28,105 ( 35.83 %)

4) Bihar:-

Total area :- 94,163
Forest Area :- 7,299 (7.75 %)

5) Chattisgarh :-

Total area :- 135,192
Forest Area :- 55,547 ( 41 %)

6) Delhi:-

Total area :- 1,483
Forest Area :- 192 ( 13 %)

7) Goa :- 

Total area :- 3,702
Forest Area :- 2,229 ( 60.21 %)

8) Gujarat:-

Total area :- 196,244
Forest Area :- 14,757 (7.52 %)

9) Haryana:-

Total area :- 44,212
Forest Area :- 1,588 ( 3.59 %)

10) Himachal Pradesh:-

Total area :- 55,673
Forest Area :- 15,100 (27.12 %)

11) Jammu and Kashmir:-

Total area :- 222,236
Forest Area :- 23,241 (10.46 %)

12) Jharkhand:-

Total area :- 79,716
Forest Area :- 23,553 (29.55 %)

13) Karnataka:-

Total area :- 191,791
Forest Area :- 37,550 (19.58 %)

14) Kerala :-

Total area :- 38,852
Forest Area :- 20,321 ( 52.30 %)

15) Madhya Pradesh:-

Total area :- 308,252 πŸ’’πŸ’’πŸ’’

Forest Area :- 77,414 ( 25.11 %)

16) Maharashtra:- 

Total area :- 307,713
Forest Area :- 50,682 (16.47 %)

17) Manipur :-

Total area :- 22,327
Forest Area :- 17,346 ( 77.69 %)

18) Meghalaya:-

Total area :- 22,429
Forest Area :- 17,146 (76.67 %)

19) Mizoram:-

Total area :- 21,081
Forest Area :- 18,186 (86.27 %)

20) Nagaland:-

Total area :- 16,579
Forest Area :- 12,489 (75.33 %)

21) Odisha :-

Total area :- 155,707
Forest Area :- 51,345 (33 %)

22) Punjab:-

Total area :- 50,362
Forest Area :- 1,837 (3.65 %)

23) Rajasthan:-

Total area :- 342,239
Forest Area :- 16,572 (4.84 %)

24) Sikkim:- 

Total area :- 7096
Forest Area :- 3344 (47.14 %)

25 ) Tamil Nadu:-

Total area :- 130,060
Forest Area :- 26,281 (20.21 %)

26) Telanganga:-

Total area :- 112077
Forest Area :- 20419 (18.22 %)

27) Tripura:- 

Total area :- 10486
Forest Area :- 7726 (73.68 %)

28) Uttar Pradesh:- 

Total area :- 240,928
Forest area :- 14,679 (6.09%)

29) Uttarakhand:- 

Total area :- 53,483
Forest Area :- 24,295 ( 45.43 %)

30) West Bengal:-

Total area :- 88,752
Forest Area :- 16,847 (19 %)



Which state has the lowest forest area in India:- 


Areawise state:- Haryana πŸ‘‹

Areawise UT:- Daman & Diu πŸ‘‹


Percentage-wise State:-
Haryana 
Percentage-wise UT:-
Puducherry 


Types of forest in India
Types-Forests-India



H.G.Champion (1936) classified forests into Various Types, they are as follows:- (Different types of forest)

1) Tropical Evergreen Forests:-

They are also known as a rain forest. The height of the trees is 60 ft and above. Rainfall is about 200 cm. Trees are evergreen till last as there is monsoon for last time. 
Eg. Rosewood, Ebony. 

There is no fixed time to shed their lives. Sunlight doesn’t enter the forest due to its high density. They are tall, straight, and form canopy. 

Most wild animals are found here. Found in mainly North East and the Western Ghats. Also, they are found in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 
 

There are also semi-evergreen forests. They are highly dense forests and form a variety of trees. Hardwood trees are also found in this forest.
This type is most important in forest types of India.

2) Tropical Deciduous Forests:- 

It is also known as β€œMonsoon Forestsβ€œ. Eg. Teak, Sal and Sandalwood e.t.c

Rainfall is between 70 – 200 cm. Trees shed their leaves in the Dry Season from (March to May).

Trees are below 60 ft. Soil found here is Alluvial, Black, and Red. These are found where there is moderate rainfall. We can find here teak trees too. 


These are again classified on basis of water availability. They are tropical moist deciduous and dry deciduous. 

These forests are the most widespread forests in India. 

3) Thorn Forests:- 

Also known as β€œDry Forestsβ€œ. They are mainly found in Rajasthan.

Mainly Cactus and date are grown here. Below 70 cm rainfall is there and long roots are there for absorbing water and short leaves.


Trees in these types are known as Xerophytes. Their function is to conserve water. They have thick and waxy leaves. They help in water loss at the time of transpiration.

Shrubs and grasses are the main characteristics here. Varieties are neem, cactus, babul, and date palm. Tusky grass is grown with a height of 2 m. 


4) Mangroves Forests:-

Excessive rainfall takes place and mainly found in Sundarban Delta.

β€œSundari trees” are grown mainly. Found in Ganga – Brahmaputra Delta. E.g Coconut.

It is mostly found in river deltas and along the coastline. It has a mixture of freshwater and saline water.  


Sundarbans are the largest mangroves in World. It is located in Ganges deltas in West Bengal and Bangladesh. It also has breathing roots. 

5) Mountainous Forests:- 

It is mainly used for making paper. Found in hilly areas of Jammu and Kashmir.
E.g Pine & deodar

Trees are between the height of 1000 m – 3500 m and above. Coniferous (Pine and deodar) and Alpine are part of it.


The temperature here is very low and also snows many times. 


6) Alpine Forests:-

Height is basically about 3000 to 4000. Tribes like Gujjars and Bakarwals follow it. It is covered mostly in the Himalayan region. 


7) Littoral and Swamp Forests:-

They are basically found in the Gulf of kachchh. Floodplains of Brahmaputra, Chilia Lake, Rivers of Ladakh, also Andaman Nicobar, and Lakshadweep. 


Chipko Movement:-

Talking about forests and chipko movement is not included is impossible. It was satyagraha led in the 1970s in Uttarakhand.β˜”β˜”

These movements were led to saving trees and ecology. The main leaders here were Sunderlal Bahuguna and Chandi Bhatt. This movement later helped in the natural vegetation of India. 

Importance of Forest:-

Frankly speaking, we are just alive because we have forests around us. If we see today people living to have to face daily fog of around 2 hours in Morning. 

Today we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide that we get from forests. We get much livelihood material from it. 

Father of Forest in India:-

Sir Dietrich Brandis is regarded as the Father of Forest. Also, H.G.Champion is regarded by some people.

Which is the best forest in India?

Tropical evergreen forest is the best forest in India. 😎😘

Types of montane forest in India:-

Also known as Mountain forests. There are two types of it. Northern mountainous and Southern mountainous forests. 

Types of protected forest in India:-

Protected forests are nothing but which are conserved. They are National parks, Biosphere reserves, and wildlife sanctuaries. Govt of India has preserved these types of forests very well. 


Types of Forests with percentage distribution:-

Plantation:- 9 %
Tropical Dry deciduous forests:- 41 %
Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests:- 17 %
Tropical evergreen Forests:- 9 %

There are many others that can be included in Forest in India. But these 4 types are main when we see percentage distribution. 

Forests Laws in India:-  🚩🚩

There are some basic laws made in India for saving forests. Forest conversation act 1980, Indian forest act 1927, Biological diversity act 2002, Environmental protection act 1986 are some important laws. 

Read this PDF about Forests in India.

Conclusion:-


This was all about β€œTypes of forest in Indiaβ€œ. Here we discussed man-made forests, Forests in India, Classification on basis of density, and 5 types of forests in India.

Geographical area state-wise and the percentage is also revised hope you all students got this. If anything is left let me in the comments section.


History says that forests are best for the country’s economy. As it helps in tourism and GDP.

Hope these will help you in the Geography section of Govt exams in UPSC and other state exams.


JAY HIND…!!!

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