What is Cyclone?
- Cyclone is basically a type of natural calamity. Cyclones are violent storms that are accompanied by rain, thunder, and lighting.
- A cyclone is capable of disturbing normal life with the severe destruction to a place of occurrence and around as well.?
- Cyclone is a strong and rotating wind that is also associated with rains originated at the water body.
- Cyclone defers from place to place eg. In South Pacific Asia (Indian Ocean) this type of calamity is called a cyclone whereas in North America Caribbean it is called a Hurricane and in Southeast Asia, it is called a Typhoon.
- In the Northern hemisphere, it is known as a hurricane whereas in the southern hemisphere it is called a cyclone. Cyclone moves in clockwise direction wherein hurricane and typhoon moves in anti-clockwise.
How cyclones are formed
- The density of air defers From place to place, atmospheric pressure acts against the surface of the earth along with gravity.
Atmospheric pressure is more on the earth’s surface as we move upwards the atmospheric pressure decrease.??
- When there is low atmospheric pressure on a large water body on the earth’s surface with low atmospheric pressure the warm air rises to fill the gaps and cold air goes down as they have moisture in it warm air as it reaches the place and rises rapidly creating more gap.
- Then the surrounding air rushes to fill the gaps and this filling air travels with greater speed with longer distances and they start moving in spiral and when a large amount of air start joining the spiral which leads to the cyclone.
Thus this leads to the formation of Cyclone. Where formation is concerned depending upon the speed of storm cyclone also defers in three types eg:
1) Tropical cyclone which carries speed less than (74 miles per hour).
2) Severe cyclone which carries the speed of around (75–120 miles per hour).
3) Super cyclone which carries more than (120 miles per hour) ??
5 Effects of cyclone
Effects of any natural calamities are hazardous and dangerous only mostly the destruction occurs in coastal areas where there is a huge loss of forest canopy.
And also as cyclone Carries strong wind which can destroy the small village and also an area with 25 KM around. As cyclone Mostly carries storms, torrential rain, and strong wind so firstly is it affect the coastal areas.
1) Redistribution of sand: As cyclone Carries strong wind which leads to Redistribution of soil, sand which leads to Redistribution of agricultural soil as well and also which leads to unproductivity of land and which can decrease the fertility of the land.
2) Rise in sea level: Cyclone also leads to rising in sea level which leads to tremendous loss of livelihood around coastal areas including other places and also it leads to overflow of seawater which is hazardous for the aquatic plants and animals in water bodies.??
3) Collapses of building and trees: Cyclone also leads to the destruction of trees and with the tree there is also Collapse of electrical wires which leads to the cutoff of lights and as the destruction of trees means a huge loss as it is known that one tree is equal to 25 tons of oxygen.
Also if there will be the collapse of any government office and also if there will be any destruction of educational institutions?? this leads to be dangerous for students and also can lead to destroy of government office and destroy many official documents.
4) Migration of people: As everyone is aware after destruction people will search for their livelihood which will leads to the migration of people from the affected area to the unaffected area and this will leads to an increase in population and many other social issues and which will also impact on local people and local infrastructure.
5) Loss of biodiversity: This is one of the important issues which will be seen after the tremendous cyclone the huge loss of biodiversity as the biosphere includes everything so this will affect to all the relevant loss.
Impact of the cyclone on human life
Loss of life: Cyclone as a huge impact on human life as one of the huge impacts is loss of life and also there is loss of employment and loss of livelihood after calamities there are huge migration from the affected area to unaffected area.??
Spread of infectious disease: Cyclone also leads to spread of infectious diseases across the affected and unaffected area both.
Due to migration there use to be more pressure on the unaffected area and also due to lack of facilities availability it also leads to unhygienic practice.
Impact of cyclone environment
Cyclone has a huge impact on the environment as the cyclone is associated with the strong wind will lead to the destruction of the ecosystem and also there is a huge loss of animals including the endangered species the animals get killed and also it affects the existing vegetation in the environment.
Short case study on cyclone
- There was tremendous destruction that occurred on March 2019 at the coast of Mozambique in that area the storm intensified the cyclone.
- This leads to huge loss of livelihood of hundreds of people also loss of life and this storm also create devastation.
Cyclone prone area in India
India is highly vulnerable to natural hazards like cyclones. According to the investigation total 13 coastal area is cyclone prone and even union territory.
A state like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, and Puducherry are cyclone-prone areas.??
Effects of the cyclone on agriculture
- Where agriculture is concerned cyclone has a direct impact on all the components of agriculture sector through direct damage by high-speed rain, torrential rain, and extensive flooding.
- As high-speed rain can bring saline water and sand along with them which can make mass feild unsustainable for agriculture.
- And also if the crops are ready for harvesting at that time if this calamity occurred at that time there will be huge loss of crops and this will leads to economic of our country the GDP contribution will suffer.
Effects of the cyclone on building
As it is already known that cyclone is associated with components like high wind speed and with also heavy rain for long duration which leads to damage of building’s and also the building contents are spoiled due to rain where roofing sheets can get fly off and also it is directly related to the electricity which is under great risk.
Effects of cyclone fani
The effects of cyclone fani in India were extensive and cyclone fani was the strongest cyclone in the Bay of Bengal during 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and the strongest cyclone ever hits the state of Odisha. This leads to a severe loss of lives and property.